The binding of COVID-19 and ACE2 affects the balance of reninCangiotensin system (RAS), potentially leading to exacerbation of severe pneumonia. to counter COVID-19 infection. This article highlights ongoing advances in designing vaccines and therapeutics to counter COVID-19 while also focusing on such experiences and advances as made with earlier SARS- and MERS-CoVs, which together could enable efforts to halt this emerging virus contamination. (subfamily constitutes the immunodominant region, and the immune response to this region shows the most potent neutralizing effect.22 The S protein has a major role in the induction of protective immunity during infection with SARS-CoV by eliciting neutralizing-antibodies and T-cell responses.19 Thus, full-length or appropriate parts of the S glycoprotein are believed to be the most promising candidate CoV vaccine Peimine composition. It was also reported that neither the absence nor presence of the other structural proteins affects S protein immunogenicity or its binding to the ACE2 receptor that is a critical initial step for virus to access into the host cell.23,24 Due to the superior ability of RBD to induce neutralizing antibody, Peimine both recombinant proteins that contain RBD and the recombinant vectors that encode RBD can be used for developing the effective SARS-CoV vaccines.18 Recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine expressing MERS-CoV S protein induces systemic IgG, secretory IgA, and lung-resident memory T-cell responses when administered intranasally into BALB/c mice and provide long-lasting neutralizing immunity to MERS spike pseudotyped virus, thereby suggesting that this vaccine may confer protection against MERS-CoV.24 Furthermore, rabies virus (RV) as a viral vector as well as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) as a bacterial vector has been used to express MERS-CoV S protein. The immune responses to these vaccine candidates were evaluated in BALB/c mice for cellular and humoral immune responses, which showed that RV-based vaccine stimulates significantly higher levels of cellular immunity and earlier antibody responses in comparison to the GEM particle vector.12 The possibility of developing a universal CoV vaccine was assessed based on the similarity in T-cell epitopes of SARS- and MERS-CoV that confirmed the potential for cross-reactivity among CoVs.25 SARS-CoV-2 shares high genetic Peimine similarity with the SARS-CoV26 such that vaccines developed for SARS-CoV may exhibit cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2. The comparative evaluation performed on full-length S protein sequences of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV identified that this most variable Peimine residues were located in the S1 subunit of S protein, the critical CoV vaccine target.27 These findings suggest that the specific neutralizing antibodies that are effective against the SARS-CoV might not be effective against the SARS-CoV-2. Even though the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 has key mutations compared to the SARS-CoV, they will still act as a viable target for vaccine development.28 Likewise, the close similarity of SARS-CoV-2 to the SARS-CoV suggests that the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 might be the same as that of SARS-CoV receptor (ACE2).29 Immuno-informatics approach can be used for the identification of epitopes for inclusion in COVID-19 vaccine candidates. Recently, immuno-informatics was used to identify significant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and B-cell epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The interactions between MGC33570 these epitopes and their corresponding MHC class I molecules were studied further by using molecular dynamics simulations and found that the CTL epitopes bind with MHC class I peptide-binding grooves multiple contacts, thus indicating their potential for generating immune responses. 30 Such epitopes may possess the ideal characteristics to become a part of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. The nucleocapsid (N) protein as well as the potential B cell epitopes of the E protein of MERS-CoV has been suggested as probable immuno-protective targets that induce both T-cell and neutralizing antibody responses.31,32 Reverse genetic strategies have been successfully used in live-attenuated vaccines to inactivate the exonuclease effects of non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) or to delete the envelope protein in SARS.5 Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a chicken CoV. It was suggested that avian live virus IBV vaccine (strain H) might be useful for SARS33 given that protection provided by strain H is based on neutralizing antibody production as well as other immune responses. Hence, avian IBV vaccine may be considered another option for COVID-19 after evaluating its safety in monkeys.34 Scientists of Rocky Mountain Laboratories are collaborating with Oxford University to develop a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine candidate.35 The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) recently announced the initiation of three programs aimed to Peimine develop COVID-19 vaccines by utilizing established vaccine platforms.36 Among the three programs, two are continuations of previously initiated partnerships. CEPI collaborated with Inovio in 2018 to developing DNA vaccine candidates for MERS ($56 M funding). The vaccine in development.