Residuals are the Y-axis difference between the data point and the fitted curve in kcal/mol

Residuals are the Y-axis difference between the data point and the fitted curve in kcal/mol. Extended Data Determine 3. Open in a separate window The asymmetric unit for the tCD81-LEL/HVR1-eE2/2A12 complex.HVR1-eE2 chains C and G (red with extended CD81-binding loop in green), tCD81-LEL chains D and H (blue), 2A12 (wheat) ribbon diagrams in the asymmetric unit of the tCD81-LEL/HVR1-eE2/2A12 complex from side (left) and top (right) views. 2A12/CD81-LEL, E2/Fab 2A12, and CD81-LEL. Upon binding CD81, E2 residues 418C422 are displaced, allowing for the extension of an internal loop, residues 520C539. Docking of the E2/CD81-LEL complex onto a membrane embedded, full length CD81 places Tyr529 and Trp531 of E2 proximal to the membrane. Liposome flotation assays demonstrate that low pH and CD81-LEL increase E2 conversation with membranes, while structure-based mutants of Tyr529, Trp531, and Ile422 of the E2 amino terminus abolish membrane binding. These data support a model that acidification and receptor binding result in a conformation change in E2 in preparation for membrane fusion. Results HCV enters hepatocytes through a multistep process requiring a series of host cellular factors and the viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 (reviewed in 1). The HCV glycoproteins mediate cell targeting, endocytosis, and membrane fusion ultimately stimulated by endosomal acidification3. At least four cellular factors are critical for HCV attachment and entry: CD81, scavenger receptor class B type I (SRBI), claudin-1 (CLDN), and occludin Rabbit Polyclonal to TLE4 (OCLN), yet blocking the E2-CD81 conversation is the primary means of antibody-mediated neutralization2. CD81 is usually ubiquitously expressed on a variety of cell lines, indicating a role secondary to hepatocyte-specific receptor binding. CD81 translocates with the virion to tight junctions and engages with late entry factors, CLDN and OCLN, in the endosome for acidification and entry. CD81 is an integral membrane protein of the tetraspanin family made up of four transmembrane helices. The CD81 large extracellular loop (LEL), a globular domain QX77 name made of five helices (ACE), binds E2 and residues that are essential for the conversation have been previously identified4C9. The molecular mechanisms thereafter, for mediating cell entry and membrane fusion for HCV, remain undefined. Initial crystallization trials exhibited the presence of low pH as a critical determinant for crystal formation, therefore the affinity of human and tamarin CD81-LEL (hCD81-LEL and tCD81-LEL, respectively) for the ectodomain of E2 (eE2) was measured at neutral and low pH. Differing from human CD81 by only five amino acids (Extended Data Physique 1), tamarin CD81 supports HCV contamination and binds E2 more effectively10,11. tCD81-LEL showed a four-fold increase in affinity of for ectodomain E2 (eE2) versus hCD81-LEL (175 nM and 773 nM, respectively) (Extended Data Table 1 and Extended Data Physique 2). Low pH (5.0) increased the affinity of tCD81-LEL for eE2 4.7-fold (175 nM at pH 7.5 to 37 nM at pH 5.0) while hCD81-LEL showed only a modest 1.1-fold increase (773 nM at pH 7.5 to 681 nM at pH 5.0) (Extended Data Table 1 and Extended Data Physique 2). A low pH complex of tCD81-LEL/HVR1-eE2 (deletion of the hypervariable region 1 of eE2) with a non-neutralizing antibody (non-NAb) Fab, 2A1212, as a crystallization chaperone, yielded crystals that diffracted to about 3.3? resolution. To assist in the identification of changes upon complex formation, structures of full-length, fully glycosylated eE2/2A12 as well as tCD81-LEL alone were also decided (Physique 1 and Extended Data Table 2). Open in a separate window Physique 1: Ribbon diagrams of the tCD81-LEL/HVR1-eE2/2A12, eE2/2A12, and tCD81-LEL X-ray crystal structures.(A) tCD81-LEL(blue)/HVR1-eE2(red/green) complex and (B) eE2 (pink/gray) alone, highlighting the location of the CD81-binding loop (green and gray, respectively). The 2A12 Fab QX77 is not shown. Carbohydrate molecules are colored by heteroatom. (C) QX77 The homodimeric, asymmetric unit of tCD81-LEL, free form, with helices ACE labeled around the intermediate (violet) and open (olive) conformations. The unwound helix D in the open QX77 conformation is labeled with a crossed-out D. (D) tCD81-LEL(blue)/HVR1-eE2(red/green) interface in detail with the side chains of the CD81-binding loop residues (green and heteroatom) represented in sticks. The CD81-binding loop sequence is given at the top of the panel. Conformational changes in E2 and CD81 The tCD81-LEL/HVR1-eE2/2A12 structure has two complexes in the asymmetric unit, permitting two independent observations of the interaction (Figure 1A and Extended Data Figure 3). The non-crystallographic, two-fold symmetry axis resembles the homodimer observed in the tCD81-LEL structure (Figure 1C) and previously reported hCD81-LEL structures13,14, and is likely a biochemical artifact as the interface clashes with the transmembrane helices (TM) of the full-length CD81 structures15,16. Each tCD81-LEL is bound to a copy of HVR1-eE2, and each HVR1-eE2 is, in turn, bound to a 2A12 Fab. There are no contacts between the E2 molecules in the asymmetric unit (Extended Data Figure 3) but the complexes are highly similar with an alpha carbon root mean squared deviation (R.M.S.D.) of 1 1.0?. The overall structure of E2 in the eE2/2A12 and.

Related Posts